A belief is what is believed and inherited by previous humans based on religious experiences formed from communication or the process of meeting with God. One of them was experienced by the figure of Mirza Ghulam Ahmad, who did not inherit a religion, but received a cult of “revelation” from God on what should be interpreted by him. He is a master of modern Sufism and one of the great Sufis of the 14th century from India. His figure became controversial after declaring himself a reformer. He was given the noble task of mahdi (a guided leader) because of his religious experience at the behest of God as the Mahdi and Messiah promised to come by the Prophet Muhammad SAW.
In 1888, he was announced as the Mujaddid of the 14th century A.H. He wrote more than 86 books. A year later, he founded the Ahmadiyya Congregation which was engaged in gathering and directing people to the right path. Rather than establishing a new religion or madhhab, the Ahmadiyya Muslims continue to follow the Prophet and believe in the Quran and Islam as their foundation.
The name Ahmadiyya comes from the Qur’an surah Ash-Shaff verse 7 which mentions another name for the Prophet Muhammad PBUH with the term Ahmad. Ahmadiyya literally comes from two words namely “Ahmad” which means Prophet Muhammad SAW. and “Iyah” which means followers. So it is wrong to interpret Ahmadiyya as followers of Mirza Ghulam Ahmad because the name still defines that they are followers of the Prophet Muhammad SAW. His claim to be the Mahdi is based on the hadith narrated by Bukhari Muslim which explains that the Prophet Muhammad SAW had other names, namely Ahmad and Al Mahyi, who had the noble task of eliminating disbelief and becoming the last prophet.
The strong reason for giving the name Ahmadiyya is because that era is the time of the revival of Islam for the second time and forever which is believed to be achieved under the name “Ahmad” of the Prophet Muhammad PBUH. However, Mirza Ghulam Ahmad adamantly refused to be called a prophet who brought a new religion and abolished Islamic law because he only carried out the commands of Allah Swt. and was always guided by Islamic law according to the Qur’an and As-Sunnah.
Ahmadiyya is still part of Islam, as evidenced by the aspects of aqidah and sharia that still adhere to the pillars of Islam and the pillars of faith. There is no specific difference other than Ahmadiyya is integrated in one constitution for the whole world. The leaders of the Ahmadiyya Congregation were revealed during the time of the Prophet Muhammad SAW, Khulafaur Rashidin (Caliphate), Mujaddid, and Khalifatul Masih. After Mirza Ghulam Ahmad died on May 26, 1908 in Lahore, the Khalifatul Masih period was continued by Maulana Hakim Nuruddin, Mirza Basyiruddin, Mirza Nashir Ahmad, Mirza Tahir Ahmad and ended with Mirza Masroor Ahmad until now.
The Ahmadiyya constitution, which is central to one leadership, does not mean that it is not open to regional power to innovate reforms. Concrete evidence can be seen in the development of Ahmadiyya in Indonesia. It began with three young men from West Sumatra in 1992 who continued their Islamic education in India, which at that time was the center of modern Islamic thought. After they recognized Ahmadiyya there, they tried to adapt it to Indonesia and began to be accepted and grow rapidly.
The Ahmadiyya congregation itself focuses on three main movements, namely the field of education, the field of organization and the field of government as the realm of maintaining the existence of Ahmadiyya and clarifying related accusations of heresy. Ahmadiyya is open to anyone to get to know them. One of the concrete proofs is that they are very participative and appreciative in the moment of the visit of students of the Religious Studies program of UIN Sunan Ampel Surabaya at the An-Nashr Ahmadiyah mosque in Sidoarjo. This activity was attended by East Java mubalig and Sidoarjo mubalig directly to dialogue about all doubts and accusations.
The story of their struggle to pioneer Ahmadiyya is full of controversy. Various acts of rejection occurred. From the mosque’s land that was closed and walled, some activities were prohibited by residents, to the closure and burning of Ahmadiyah mosques in other areas. This is proof that Ahmadiyah still has to continue to struggle to maintain its existence even though they have become a legal organization in Indonesia. In the midst of alienation by society and some institutions, the struggle of the Ahmadiyya Congregation to maintain its existence continues in order to obtain their rights. (Muhammad Ridwan Hidayat – Student of Religious Studies Study Program)